About a dozen species occur indigenously in India and it is difficult to distinguish them xylotomically from each other. The rulers of Travancore ruled the kingdom as the servants of Sri. Palynological data of the Kerala coast [63] — [65] too complements the accrued wood assemblage for palaeoclimate appraisal. Retrieved 20 December Studies on Distribution of E. The upland species are heavier and superior in strength and durability to floodplain species; used for making boats, timber and construction [45].

Received Aug 19; Accepted Mar 5. The area is, thereby, one of the most prominent carbon sinks in this part of Peninsular India. Department of Higher Education. Criminal Justice India Series: Anatomical literature and illustrations of earlier published works were used for identification, and sub fossil logs were assigned to their NRL [7] — [10] , [15] — [31]. Milne Edwards Decapoda, Potamidea. The wood has good glue holding capacity and used for plywood tea-boxes [88].

A generalized cross section distinguishes the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments that entomb the wood remains along Kollam – Ernakulam coast Figure 5.

Prior to yrs BP, there were hardly any wetlands, except isolated depressions and lakes, while the sea level was much lower [60][61]. The heartwood darkens with age. The most popular sports in Thiruvananthapuram are cricket and football.

Wong KM Rubiaceae- In: Most of the paddy fields, lakes, swamps and marshes, in the midland region contiguous to SKSB and elsewhere are reported to contain trunks of trees. Gaping holes visible in Kerala education system”.


Worbes Irver Growth rings, increment and age of trees in inundation forests, savannas and a mountain forest in the Neotropics. Retrieved 25 August It is apparent that such places were not wetlands when the forest cover existed in recent past. V K Prasanth [2]. Species grow in a wide number of habitats, from ridges in mountain forests to coastal swamps, lowland forest.


This heavy rainfall flooded the coastal plains, forest flourishing in the abandoned river channels and other low-lying areas in midland. National Games Kerala Gupta S Atlas of Indian Hardwoods, their photomicrographs, and anatomical features. It also grows well karamsna black cotton soils.

karamana river thesis

The city takes its name from the Malayalam word thiru-anantha-puram IPA: The wood can be easily impregnated with synthetic resins to increase its density and compressive strength.

On surveying the anatomical literature and examining the available modern wood slides, it is found that the samples exhibit strong resemblance with the extant woods thesks Careya arborea Roxb.

BSIP wood slide no. Kaamana 29 March Retrieved 5 August Sports Authority of India. However, Worbes [43][44] confirmed that in tropical regions, where an annual drought or flood occurs, the wood also exhibits annual growth rings, and the width of growth rings depend on the length of time a tree remains exposed to hydrological extremes.

karamana river thesis

Is a species of mangrove found on coasts and river banks in the Indo-Pacific region. The record of palynoflora and the subfossil logs from the peatland, wetland, palaeoestuaries, river banks and paleobeach ridges from the southwestern part of India undoubtedly prove that the entire land, west of Sahyadri up to the coast, was riber forested towards Early to Mid- Holocene 9.


Anil 23 September Anacardiaceae Wood diffuse porous; growth rings indistinct Native to the Neo tropics and about 10 are native to tropical Asia. Such evidence indicates that these fossils did not drift too far from their place of origin, and hence are of considerable significance in determining vegetation characteristics in the catchments.

Thiruvananthapuram – Wikipedia

Two wood samples at 3. English is also used, mainly by the white-collar workforce. The oldest record of Rhizophora in India dates back to Oligocene of Assam [42]. Most species in the genus produce little to none of this black ebony-type wood; their hard timber e. Greyish black, organic matter rich silt and sand dominated sediment.

The family Moraceae is a small family with 38 genera and species distributed in tropical warm regions with a few in temperate zones.